lmlib.statespace.cost.Segment#
- class lmlib.statespace.cost.Segment(a, b, direction, g, delta=0, label=None, gamma=None)#
Bases:
object
Segment represents a window of finite or infinite interval borders used to select and weight signal samples in a cost function.
Segments are commonly used in combination with ALSSM signal models to select and weight the samples in cost functions, see
CostSegment
orCompositeCost
. The window of a segment either has an exponentially decaying shape or is defined by the output of its own ALSSM model, denoted ast the window ALSSM. The selection of a window also controls the direction of a stable recursive cost computation (forward or backward).In cunjunction with an ALSSM, a Segment leads to a cost function of the form
\[J_k(x) = \sum_{i=k+a}^{k+b} \gamma^{i-k-\delta}\big(CA^{i-k}x - y_i\big)^2 \ ,\]and when additionally using sample weights \(v_k\), of the form
\[J_k(x) = \sum_{i=k+a}^{k+b} v_k {\alpha}_{k+\delta}(k+\delta) \big(CA^{i-k}x - y_i\big)^2 \ ,\]with the sample weights \(v_k\) and the window weight \(\alpha_k(j)\) which depends on the sample weights, see Equation (14) in [Wildhaber2018]
See also [Wildhaber2018] [Wildhaber2019]
- Parameters
a (int, np.inf) – Left boundary of the segment’s interval
b (int, np.inf) – Right boundary of the segment’s interval
g (int, float, None) – \(g > 0\). Effective number of samples under the window. This is used as a (more readable) surrogate for the window decay of exponential windows, see [Wildhaber2018].
\(g\) is counted to the left or right of \(k+ \delta\), for for forward or backward computation direction, respectively.direction (str) – Computation direction of recursive computations (also selects a left- or right-side decaying window)
statespace.FORWARD
or ‘fw’ use forward computation with forward recursions
statespace.BACKWARD
or ‘bw’ use backward computation with backward recursionsdelta (int, optional) – Exponential window is normalized to 1 at relative index
delta
.gamma (float, int) – Window Constant Decay, (Alternative for g. If gamma is set g has to be None) gamma is to choose dependent of the direction (forward, backward). Forward directions with gamma <= 1 will raise a warning for possible instability, backwards directions with gamma >= 1. See [Wildhaber2018] Table IV
label (str, None, optional) – Segment label, useful for debugging in more complex systems (default: label = None)
Notes
The interval of the semgment includes both boundaries a and b into the calculations. i.e., if the sum runs over the interval \(k \in [a,b] \) samples.
Examples
>>> segment = lm.Segment(a=-20, b=-1, direction=lm.FORWARD, g=15) >>> print(segment) Segment : a:-20, b:-1, fw, g:15, delta:0, label: None
>>> segment = lm.Segment(a=-0, b=100, direction=lm.BACKWARD, g=15, delta=30, label="right-sided window with shift") >>> print(segment) Segment : a:0, b:100, bw, g:15, delta:30, label: right-sided window with shift
Methods
__init__
(a, b, direction, g[, delta, label, ...])set_boundaries
(a, b)window
([thd])Returns the per-sample window weighs
Attributes
Left boundary of the segment's interval \(a\)
Right boundary of the segment's interval \(b\)
Relative window shift \(\delta\)
Sets the segment's recursion computation direction
Effective number of samples \(g\), setting the window with
Window decay factor \(\gamma\)
Label of the segment
- property direction#
Sets the segment’s recursion computation direction
FORWARD
,FW
or ‘fw’ use forward computation with forward recursionsBACKWARD
,BW
or ‘bw’ use backward computation with backward recursions
- Type
- property g#
Effective number of samples \(g\), setting the window with
The effective number of samples \(g\) is used to derive and set the window decay factor \(\gamma\) internally.
[Wildhaber2018] [Section III.A]
- property gamma#
Window decay factor \(\gamma\)
Window decay factor \(\gamma\) is set internally on the initialization of a new segment object and is derived from the effective number of samples
Segment.g
as follows:for a segment with forward recursions: \(\gamma = \frac{g}{g-1}\)
for a segment with forward recursions: \(\gamma = \big(\frac{g}{g-1}\big)^{-1}\)
[Wildhaber2018] [Table IV]
- Type
- window(thd=1e-06)#
Returns the per-sample window weighs
The return values are the window weights \(\alpha_{\delta}(i) \quad \forall i \in [a, b]\) for a constant \(\gamma\). The window weight function is defined as
\[w_i = \gamma^{i}\]For more details see [Wildhaber2018].
- Parameters
thd (float, None, optional) – Threshold for infinite Segment boundaries. Crops any window weight below the threshold.
- Returns
range
of length JR: relative index range of window with respect to segment’s boundaries.array
of shape=(JR) of floats: per-index window weight over the reported index range
- Return type
tuple
(range, array)
JR : index range length
Examples